Manila: National Censusand Statistics Office. If further conversion of forests to agricultural uses is blocked through effective community enforcement and shifting cultivation is to decline, there must be agricultural innovation to maintain viable farming systems on the lands surrounding the forests. In systems that use animal labor, forage legumes have been tested as an alternative to natural Imperata cylindrica infestation, but their effects are poorly documented. The Philippines will be highly dependent on the successful expansion of plantation forestry to avoid the complete loss of natural forest cover. Hanunoo Agriculture in the Philippines. In Agroforestry in the Humid Tropics, N. T. Vergara and N. Briones, eds. Identification of practical and cost-effective tactics will require a systems approach. 1991. Most of the increase in farm area since 1960 has been on nonarable land, as defined by the Bureau of Soils (1977). Source: Basri, I., A. Mercado, and D. P. Garrity. Cash Crop Production in Hedgerows may also be suitable for the production of perennial cash crops. Torres, R. O., D. P. Garrity, R. J. Buresh, R. K. Pandey, R. T. Bantilan, F. M. Tumacas, and A. Montecalvo. larly the Rainfed Resources Development Project) and the World Bank enabled new models of upland management to be implemented on a trial basis. The lack of secure land tenure was implicated as a constraint to the implementation of this or any long-term land improvement system among tenant farmers or occupants of public lands. Luzon and Mindanao occupy about 35 and 32 percent of total land area, respectively. Philippine Stud. 1. Fujisaka, S. 1989. van Oosterhout, A. From 1970 to 1980, the number of farms increased by 1.06 million (45.3 percent) and farm area ( Table 4) increased by 1.23 million ha (14.5 percent). 1974. Overgrazing during the regrowth period reduces ground cover and makes grassland the most significant source of soil erosion in the Philippines. 369–391 in Urbanization and Migration in ASEAN Development, P. M. Hauser, D. B. “Brushland” was excluded from “forest.”. Aggarwal, P. K., and D. P. Garrity. Philippine Agriculture in the 70s and 80s: TNC's Boon, Peasants' Doom. 1962. Although they are illegal, these claims result in nominal tax revenues for local governments, which otherwise have very limited sources of income. Implementation of the current agrarian reform program is clouded by similar doubts. The concept of naturally reseeded fallow fields deserves serious attention as an alternative fallow for both grassland and forest agroecosystems, where natural woody plant regeneration after cropping is suppressed. Cropping systems to preserve fertility of red-yellow podzolic soils in Indonesia. Ready to take your reading offline? Without proper management, these forests and other natural resources will be seriously depleted within the next 50 years. Ly, Tung. Figure 2 is a simplified model of the major forces that have led to deforestation in the Philippines. A training effort for extension personnel was launched, and demonstration plots of SALT were installed on farmers' fields throughout the country. Kutztown, Pa.: Rodale Institute. The funds that the government has designated for this program are largely from international donors, particularly the Asian Development Bank. Resources, Population, and the Philippines' Future. Within-season droughts and the limited length of the growing season are common constraints, but the total quantity of precipitation is abundant: 90 percent of the country receives at least 1,780 mm per year (Wernstedt and Spencer, 1967). They assumed responsibility for managing and conserving designated portions of the forest under the guidance of the project staff. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Agency for International Development. Most observers agree that migration occurs because of the lack of opportunities in the lowlands. 1974. Manila, Philippines: U.S. Agency for International Development. Historical Land Use Evolution in a Tropical Acid Upland Agroecosystem. The area of old-growth dipterocarp forests was projected to be only 949,000 ha. Challenges for the Philippines (pp.1-22) Publisher: Philippine-APEC Study Center Network and the Philippine Institute for Development Studies Guiang, E. 1991. Application of apatitic phosphate rock for corn and upland rice in a hydric dystrandept. The Philippines is rich in natural resources, number one in marine biodiversity; with the fourth longest coastline in the world; number five in natural flora and fauna, and in all other mineral resources. It embodies landmark changes in philosophy and policy that are now accepted by the national government and some that are already part of existing programs. Paper presented at the International Workshop on Conservation Farming on Hillslopes, Taichung, Taiwan, March 20–29, 1989. low levels the habitat of the many species of flora and fauna endemic to the Philippines. In addition, the Master Plan for Forestry Development (Department of Environment and Natural Resources, 1990) has recently been issued by the Philippine government. a Mixed grass, brush, plantation, and other crops. J. Int. Quezon City, Philippines: Department of Environment and Natural Resources. There are a variety of farming systems in the grasslands, ranging from shifting cultivation to permanent cultivation systems. 3–8 in Project Reports and Technical Papers, Vol. This effort was managed by the Forest Management Bureau. Philippines: Toward Sustaining the Economic Recovery. Agricultural Geography of the Philippines. Tokyo: National Institute for Research Advancement. The extraction of high-value timber from old-growth dipterocarp forests will disappear as the few remaining forests vanish or become protected. Pp. The forest resources that had seemed virtually inexhaustible were expended in a prodigal manner. Forest denudation is at an advanced stage in the Philippines. TABLE 10 Scenarios of Natural Forest Cover in the Philippines, 1990 –2015, Cumulative Loss of Forest Cover (percent)a. Employment in forest industries may quadruple if indigenous systems are adopted (P. C. Dugan, Department of Environment and Natural Resources, personal communication, 1990). Malayan Forest. B. Kauffman's research (cited in Savonen [1990]) showed that rain forests are capable of catching fire only on an average of 1 day each 11 years, but partially logged areas burn after an average of only 6 rainless days. The grasslands appear to have served as an intermediate zone—a portion continually being transformed into permanent croplands or plantations—for a long period of time, whereas new area is created as the forest withdraws. The watershed framework ensures that the social, economic, and political linkages between upstream and downstream lands are not neglected in the analyses (Magrath and Doolette, 1990). Harvesting and other thinning activities are done in accordance with a DENR-approved management plan. Arts Lett. The growth of the Philippine Social Forestry Program. 11(2):113–123. However, research has not been targeted to exploit this option in Philippine uplands. Farmers' involvement and use of simple methods: Agroforestry strategies for watershed protection. It sets a detailed, optimistic agenda that adopts a strategy of reduced public management in favor of increased private management of forest resources through people-oriented forestry. Much can be done now to take specific action to implement these concepts. The major out-migration areas have been the Visayas and the Bicol and Ilocos regions of Luzon. Manila, Philippines: International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources . The permanently cultivated lands expand into the grasslands as shifting cultivation on the grassland margins intensifies, and the grasslands advance at the expense of the forested lands as settlement and the relentless use of fire open and transform the forests. It is essential that staff supported by international projects be equally distributed among programs managed by the departments. Give Priority to People-Oriented Forestry Now that regulation of the forests by the national government has been acknowledged to be inadequate, forest protection through empowerment of people and their communities is officially accepted as the only workable model. Los Baños: University of the Philippines. Because the problems transcend national boundaries, stronger international mechanisms that provide efficient research and development support to the respective nations are needed. The Philippine government has proved to be incapable of managing the country's land area. Initially, the green revolution (the breakthroughs in rice varietal technology in the late 1960s) increased labor use intensity in rice production (Otsuka et al., 1990). If this rate of decline continues, old-growth dipterocarp forests will disappear entirely by 1995—long before effective management systems to preserve them can be put into place. Weidelt, H. J., and V. S. Banaag. A focus on the Southeast Asian upland ecosystem does not fall within the mandate of any of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR). leaf manure for the rice crop. Palmier, L. 1989. 24:231–237. Forestland assessment and management for sustainable uses in the Philippines. Public reforestation projects are given neither adequate incentives nor appropriate management capabilities to provide protection from fires. The cash income that can be made is a major advantage of using perennial crops. Rainforests are rapidly being cleared in the humid tropics to keep pace with food demands, economic needs, and population growth. In absolute terms, deforestation in the 1950–1969 and 1969–1987 periods were about the same (Table 6). Mapping of the NaturalConditions of the Philippines. As Hackenberg and Hackenberg (1971) pointed out in their study of Davao City, Mindanao, “The basis of wealth is lumber, and the profits are instantaneous for those with political connections to secure a concession” (p. 8). 1981. Many of the records that did exist have been lost. about 6.03 million ha of forest cover in 1991, about 20 percent of the country's total land area. Sustainable Development Goals What are the Sustainable Development Goals? J. Reorient Forestry Research and Development Forestry in the Philippines will change dramatically in the next 20 years. Interrow cultivation and late weeding during the maize grain-filling period enable the second and third crops to be planted on the day of harvest without tillage and with low weed pressures. Agroforest. Los Baños, Philippines: Center for Policy and Development Studies. Although migration to urban areas has been particularly pronounced since 1960, movement to frontier or upland areas continues (Cruz et al., 1986). This unconventional approach provides interesting prospects for practical techniques for reducing the tillage needed for food crop farming with limited resources. Manila, Philippines: Bureau of Forestry. The Philippines is taking further steps to identify the country’s roadmap towards sustainable development in the next 15 years. Communities that have traditionally possessed land but whose lands are under strong encroachment pressure from lowland settlers or plantation expansion: Groups such as the Ikalahans and Mangyans struggled successfully over a long period of time to obtain a lease and consider stewardship leases to be the best practical means for trying to maintain the integrity of their land. Census of the Philippine Islands, 1918. See the list of our distinctions—a proof of our commitment to excellence. However, it may not be any more effective in forest conservation than a top-down approach unless local management entities receive appropriate support to develop the complex skills needed to guide their efforts. 1969. Industrial pulpwood plantations. Gwyer, G. 1978. There are many factors that limit the stability, productivity, and sustainability of upland farms, including climatic variations, biologic stresses, and social and economic uncertainties. Fernandes, E. C. M. 1990. These sites would be linked to the less intensive applied research and extension programs carried out by NGOs and government departments. The baseline scenario assumes a current rate of forest loss of 125,000 ha/ year that gradually decreases to 25,000 ha/year by 2015. If the contractors perform well in meeting the provisions of the reforestation contract, they can apply for a Forestland Management Agreement (the second phase). The upland rural population has the least access to family planning programs and is least likely to accept the notion that limiting family size is in its best interest. Manila, Philippines: Bureau of Printing. 11:157–190. Washington, D.C.: National Academy of Sciences. Whitford, H. N. 1911. Tower One & Exchange Plaza, Ayala Triangle, Ayala Avenue, Makati City, Metro Manila. The overall extent of deforestation was estimated by Myers (1984) to be 55 percent in 1950. Manila: Bureau of Printing. Guiang, E., and M. Gold. 1988. Social stratification, agricultural intensification and environmental degradation in Leyte, Philippines: Implications for sustainable development. Notes on Logging in the Philippines. 1920. Nitrogen fertilizer is an important tool that can be used to familiarize lowland rice farmers with nutrient use and bolster national rice sufficiency. e Data from 1988 were projected back to 1987. To harness the energies of upland populations in creating sustainable land use systems and to ensure the success of reforestation and forest remnant conservation efforts, the national government must establish a new political relationship with the upland population. tems Research and Development Bureau of DENR and the Department of Agriculture's research programs, particularly key community-based forestry and contract reforestation projects, would generate a greater focus on the constraints to using various land use systems in deforested areas. World Bank. U.S. Bureau of the Census. The plan articulates a people-oriented forestry program that is sensitive to the current understanding of the complex underlying determinants of deforestation. Eventually, they might form local environment and natural resource centers that would assist the national government in training and on-farm research. These field laboratories need sustained support with a budget structure that keeps team members working together. College, Laguna, Philippines: East-West Center/Southeast Asian Regional College of Agriculture. programs to distribute ruminants (cattle, goats, and sheep) to small-scale upland farmers for cut-and-carry production systems. 1984. Boado, E. L. 1988. 1971. (1963) in a study of Cebu province, which is now entirely deforested, points out that what had originally been a shifting system of maize cultivation has now been transformed into permanent, sedentary farming. Grass Strips Grass strips have also received major attention as contour vegetative barriers for erosion control in different parts of the world (Lal, 1990). Census of the Philippine Islands, 1903. Even so, there is little likelihood that the upland population will participate significantly in this transition. Eighteen Forest Stewardship Associations composed of forest occupants and farmers were initiated. The value of such systems remains unconfirmed. Solna: Swedish Space Corporation;German inventory: Philippine-German Forest Resources Inventory Project.1988. 10. Government Policies and the Misuse of Forest Resources. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. The island nature of the country gives it a very long coastline relative to its size. Pp. Interest in rehabilitating degraded forests will grow as the real value of timber rises. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. Cruz et al. Southgate, D., and D. Pearce. Little research has been directed to the agronomics of trees in fallow fields. The technology appropriate for a shifting cultivation system differs from that for a permanent field cultivation system because of the major differences in labor and land use intensity required for each system. Policy implications of population pressure in Philippine uplands. 1967. Boulder, Colo.: Westview. Pp. Tree plantations and farm forestry can then become viable income-producing activities. The Philippines Recommends for Dipterocarp Production. Integrate Livestock into Upland Farming Systems There must be greater emphasis on ruminant livestock in achieving sustainability in mixed farming systems. One-third of the upland forest inhabitants are displaced lowland farmers who do not have long-standing land use traditions such as those commonly observed among indigenous communities, which have a better grasp of the fragile nature of the ecology of their lands (Sajise, 1979). There are virtually no data, however, to verify the effectiveness of enrichment techniques or to address the numerous practical questions that arise in their implementation. Cultivated area in the uplands is about 3.9 million ha. The steady decline in the grassland area provided the major source for the expansion of the area devoted to crops (Figure 1). This allows organized cooperatives of forest occupants and upland farmers to extract, process, and sell forest products in exchange for the community 's commitment to protect, manage, and enrich the residual forest. J. Philippine Devel. BSD has been instrumental in shaping the landscape of sustainability in the Philippines through sustainability management initiatives that has influenced both private and public sectors to contribute to the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG). Pacific Affairs 47:286–304. More rice crops were produced each year (two instead of one), and more intensive management was applied. Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. However, this must be linked with the improvement of methods for greater sustained food crop production per unit area to release land and labor for other cash-generating activities. Basri, I., A. Mercado, and D. P. Garrity. Mechanized logging is skewed toward once-over extraction of the 150-plus-year-old virgin trees, with a return harvest expected after some 30 to 100 years, assuming that. Washington, D.C.: World Resources Institute. Therefore, a critical consideration in an assessment of future scenarios of forestry and agriculture in the Philippine upland ecosystem must include accurate prediction of trends in the political economy. B. Doolette. 1–7 in On-Farm Research Notes, Vol. 1962. The natural production forests will be managed by local communities—with guidance from professional foresters—by using low-disturbance logging methods with animal labor. Show this book's table of contents, where you can jump to any chapter by name. tion in approach. The most immediate need is for the delineation of the ancestral domains by survey teams, so that a common basis of understanding exists between the national government and the communities (Lynch and Talbot, 1988) and so that communities can exercise effective control over their domains. Washington, D.C.: World Resources Institute. This included an estimated population of 8.50 million people who reside on public forestlands. Natural Forest Resources of the Philippines. Dames and Moore International, Louis Berger International, and Institute for Development Anthropology. crops than other hedgerow species, and they are adapted to local ecosystems and resilient in terms of longevity and reestablishment. Thus, one of the major issues confronting Philippine forestry is how to manage secondary dipterocarp forests on a sustainable basis, for which there is little proven experience. On migration, the Philippines advocated that the 2030 Agenda recognize the positive contributions of migrants to sustainable development in countries of origin, transit and destination. Pp. Backyard ruminant production will stimulate more intensive husbandry of manure. 1988. The Philippine government has now acknowledged that it is incapable of managing forestlands on its own (Department of Environment and Natural Resources, 1990). There is some potential for further intensification of rice cropping in irrigated areas and diversification to alternative higher income crops, including grain legumes, and tree crops. In fields where the technique has been implemented, the soil in runoff water is deposited at the filter strip. Agric. 1989. Strategic research will need to be complemented with in-depth surveys of the methods of indigenous farmers and evaluations by participating farmers from multiple locations in forests representing wide ecologic gradients. An inert species is one that has a short stature and a low growth rate, which minimizes hedgerow-crop competition but provides an effective ground cover for filtering out soil particles. They also provide a good foundation for soil conservation efforts, so that farmers may subsequently diversify into more labor-intensive hedgerow enterprises, including those that grow perennials, leguminous trees, and improved forages. Celestino, A. F. 1984. These groups are desperately seeking some form of land tenure security and are highly receptive to leasing arrangements. It appears to be optimistic to assume that commercial logging will stop immediately, that illegal logging can be controlled (since it has been resilient in the past), and that indigenous communities and migrants to the forest will not further convert significant areas of the forest to permanent agricultural uses. Vetiver grass—A hedge against erosion. Commercial use of agricultural land and the increased concentration of poor farmers on agricultural lands in lowland areas in Leyte has decreased the amount of land available for poor farmers, forcing poor. Baliña, F. T., L. Tung, and A. P. Obusa. Hooley, R., and V. W. Ruttan. Schade, J. Perennial and tree cropping systems will be common enterprises and will be integrated with livestock and food crop production. Pp. However, further definition of the terms of the lease is at DENR's administrative discretion. The implementation of current policy will turn the primary responsibilities for forest protection, tree production, and land conservation over to upland communities, NGOs, and individuals. (1989), Fay (1989), Por-. Ecological, Economic and Development Values of Biological Diversity in Asia and the Near East. The success record, however, has been disappointing. Paper presented at the 8th Annual Scientific Meeting of the Federation of Crop Science Societies of the Philippines, Zamboanga City, Philippines, May 24–28, 1992. Agron. 1985. Tamesis, F. 1937. Philippine J. In addition, the labor needed to manage the hedges, particularly to prune them 3 to 10 times each year, depending on the management system, was found to absorb a large proportion of the household's available labor. Zon, R., and W. N. Sparhawk. National Research Council. 1948. Land tenure is the dominant barrier to more productive management of the lands on which coconut is grown. 1977. Although some deforestation has been caused by other factors, for example, the use of trees to make charcoal and the conversion of mangrove forests to fish ponds, the two most important activities leading to deforestation were logging (legal and illegal) and the expansion of agriculture. Quezon City, Philippines: Department of Agriculture. Lit. Pp. Experimental data (Table 9) and field observations of plantings in various locations indicate that use of forage grasses for intercropping has the potential to markedly reduce erosion and rapidly develop natural terraces on slopes. The area under direct central government control must be decreased rapidly. Condominiums and homes in strategic locations. Philippine forests and forestry: 1565–1920. Watson, H. R., and W. L. Laquihon. Porter, G. D., and D. Ganapin. The greater population densities necessitate rotating the fallow areas of fields within permanent farm boundaries. The Philippines has a serious population growth problem, but acceptance of this fact has been fairly recent. 3. Bartlett, H. H. 1956. The incentive would popularize the use of contour hedgerows and make it economically attractive to practice conservation. Protection from communal grazing is also a constraint in many areas. When burning or other disturbance is halted, I. cylindrica is rapidly invaded and shaded out by taller, woody species. As of 1988, only 2.2 percent of publicly owned forestlands were placed under leasehold arrangements; thus, only a fraction of the upland farming population has been affected. 14:124–125. The 1980 forest data are from the Forest Development Center (1985) and the Philippine-German Forest Resources Inventory Project (Forest Management Bureau, 1988), which were projected back from deforestation data for 1987. However, because of the mountainous terrain, the occurrence of typhoons in the northern half of the country, and the effects of two separate monsoon seasons, there is striking micro-and macrovariation in the seasonal distribution and amount of precipitation. Two issues must be addressed: What will it take to make small-scale farming permanently sustainable? The speed of implementation of ISFP has been disappointing. A trend toward more intensive small-scale beef and goat production is now under way in many parts of the country. 1905. Pp. Szott, L. T., C. A. Palm, and P. A. Sanchez. This article attempts to discuss initiatives through which tertiary education has helped bring about sustainable development in the Philippines. Forestry and Forest Products: World Situation, 1937–1946. Mobility and connectivity are central to our masterplanned communities to ensure that people are provided with safe alternatives to motor vehicles. In addition, farming in the forests increased after the war because of continuing food shortages (Sulit, 1963; Tamesis, 1948). Cattle Production Backyard production of cattle has become an important enterprise in some densely settled upland areas, particularly Batangas province. Luning, H. A. 2:11–23. Of the 18.6 million people who lived in the uplands in 1988, 6 million had lived there before 1945, 2 million had migrated there between 1945 and 1948, and 10 million had migrated there since 1948 (Lynch and Talbott, 1988). Forest Management Bureau. Pernia, E. M. 1988. Intercropping of cereals and legumes may increase their combined productivities, but it does not increase the net availability of nitrogen to the cereal crop (Aggarwal et al., 1992). As the farm size decreases, permanent cropping evolves, in many cases with extremely low comparative yields (Vandermeer, 1963). Management of Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) Rocamora, J. E. 1979. 84:71–78. A national research project on the ecology and management of fire could collate the knowledge on the subject that can be provided by indigenous peoples, design a comprehensive framework for investigation, and assist regional and local research teams in undertaking work in this area within the respective land use system research programs. The technical, managerial, social, marketing, and financial management requirements of community-based forest management projects are enormous. Colleges of agriculture and forestry need to be encouraged to set up joint academic and research programs targeted to upland ecosystems. 1986. 2. They facilitate the spread of agriculture by opening up new areas; this occurred in parts of Mindanao in the 1950s and early 1960s (Vandermeer and Agaloos, 1962; Wernstedt and Simkins, 1965). Abad, R. G. 1981. Pacific Rev. 1953. Ayala Land's vision of enhancing land and enriching lives remains relevant today, further empowered by our master plan to provide a meaningful impact to Filipinos through sustainability. World Population Data Sheet 1990. The possibility of successfully using a reduced-tillage system has been reinforced by recent observations on a farmer-evolved system of maize production in Mindanao (D. P. Garrity, International Rice Research Institute, unpublished data). 1991. 1989a. 1990. The advantages of natural vegetative filter strips are their simplicity of installation, their low labor requirements, and their excellent erosion control and terrace formation capabilities. Migration accounted for the bulk of the population growth in the upland areas (Cruz et al., 1986). Resource use and plant interactions in a rice-mungbean intercrop. 1980. Roth, D. M. 1983. By the mid-1980s, SALT was adopted by the Philippine Department of Agriculture as the basis for its extension effort in the sloping uplands. J. Philippine Devel. Grassland areas are flammable after only 1 rainless day. 1990. production in the Philippines comes from the species Shorea almon (almon), Dipterocarpus grandiflorus (apitong), Parashorea plicata (tikan), S. plicata (mayapis), S. negrosensis (red lauan), S. polysperma (tanguile), and Pentacme contorta (white lauan). Pp. Granert, W. 1990. 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Rp-German forest Resources Inventory Project ( 1984–1989 ) was the uplands were in municipalities with logging concessions ( Cruz Zosa-Feranil... Crops have been the sloping upland areas ( Belsky and Siebert, 1985 ) terms. Cattle, goats, and 1980, the soil in runoff water is deposited at the heart of Land’s! For secondary forests if the rate of forest regulations were uncovered 15 largest islands make up 94 percent the... Economy in Negros ( 1850–1898 ) universal soil management practice of Filipino upland farmers in contour...

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