He is not interested in the material pleasures of the world, and is unaffected by its glamour. [151] A number of 19th-century thinkers such as Arthur Schopenhauer,[152] Albert Pike and Madame Blavatsky studied Gnostic thought extensively and were influenced by it, and even figures like Herman Melville and W. B. Yeats were more tangentially influenced. J. M. Robinson, "Jesus: From Easter to Valentinus (Or to the Apostles' Creed)", Understanding Jewish History: Texts and Commentaries by, Schenke, Hans Martin. [73][71][74][72] Gnostics and proto-orthodox Christians shared some terminology. In many Gnostic systems, God is known as the Monad, the One. Fifty-two copies of ancient writings, called the Gnostic gospels were found in … [148], The Mandaeans are an ancient Gnostic sect that have survived to this day and are found today in Iraq. [170], According to Ioan Culianu, gnosis is made possible through universal operations of the mind, which can be arrived at "anytime, anywhere". [47] This creature is concealed outside the pleroma;[47] in isolation, and thinking itself alone, it creates materiality and a host of co-actors, referred to as archons. [note 30] Hippolytus (170–235) wrote the ten-volume Refutation Against all Heresies, of which eight have been unearthed. [4]It is now generally believed that the evidence suggests that Gnosticism was a Jewish movement which subsequently reacted to Christianity or that Gnosticism emerged directly in reaction t… [138] Such Gnostic anthropogenic can be found frequently among Isma'ili traditions. Many Gnostic texts deal not in concepts of sin and repentance, but with illusion and enlightenment.[3]. Though there are many documents that could be included among the gnostic gospels, the term most commonly refers to the following: 1. From Wikimedia Commons, the free media repository. [96] Later Sethian texts continue to interact with Platonism. According to Hippolytus, this view was inspired by the Pythagoreans, who called the first thing that came into existence the Monad, which begat the dyad, which begat the numbers, which begat the point, begetting lines, etc. Intellectuals who were heavily influenced by Gnosticism in this period include Lawrence Durrell, Hans Jonas, Philip K. Dick and Harold Bloom, with Albert Camus and Allen Ginsberg being more moderately influenced. In the Apocryphon of John, this god is good in that it bestows goodness. It would be impossible that both light and darkness were created from one source, since they were regarded as two different eternal principles. [134] Muslim theologists countered this accusation by the example of a repeating sinner, who says: "I laid, and I repent";[135] this would prove that good can also result out of evil. He founded his school in Rome. [154], Early 20th-century thinkers who heavily studied and were influenced by Gnosticism include Carl Jung (who supported Gnosticism), Eric Voegelin (who opposed it), Jorge Luis Borges (who included it in many of his short stories), and Aleister Crowley, with figures such as Hermann Hesse being more moderately influenced. Part of the The Nag Hammadi Library (Nag Hammadi Scriptures) collection. Ibn al-Muqaffa depicted the Islamic deity as a demonic entity who "fights with humans and boasts about His victories" and "sitting on a throne, from which He can descend". Jewish Gnosticism with a focus on Sophia was active by 90 AD. ", Williams: "On the other hand, the one group whom Irenaeus does explicitly mention as users of this self-designation, the followers of the Second Century teacher Marcellina, are not included in Layton's anthology at all, on the grounds that their doctrines are not similar to those of the "classic" gnostics. In the end, the kingdom of light will prevail over darkness. The Gospel of Truth is one of the Gnostic texts from the New Testament apocrypha found in the Nag Hammadi codices ("NHC"). [105] The Samaritan leaders were viewed as "the embodiment of God's power, spirit, or wisdom, and as the redeemer and revealer of 'true knowledge'". From Syria it progressed still farther, into Palestine, Asia Minor and Armenia. As Christianity developed and became more popular, so did Gnosticism, with both proto-orthodox Christian and Gnostic Christian groups often existing in the same places. The Elchasaites, or at least Christians influenced by them, paired the male Christ with the female Holy Spirit, envisioning both as two gigantic angels. [7] The usual meaning of gnostikos in Classical Greek texts is "learned" or "intellectual", such as used by Plato in the comparison of "practical" (praktikos) and "intellectual" (gnostikos). [64] Most of the literature from this category is known to us through the Nag Hammadi Library. [note 32], Prior to the discovery of Nag Hammadi, the Gnostic movements were largely perceived through the lens of the early church heresiologists. ontstond en waarbij de verwerving van gnosis centraal stond. The flower is above the polluted swamps, rather than feeding from it, it waits for the clean, pure rain. The Gnostic belief was widespread within Christianity until the proto-orthodox Christian communities expelled the group in the second and third centuries (AD). [169], In addition, Alastair Logan uses social theory to identify Gnosticism. Often they appear to rewrite familiar stories with a twist. [170], According to the Westar Institute's Fall 2014 Christianity Seminar Report on Gnosticism, there actually is no group that possesses all of the usually-attributed features. [27] Recent research into the origins of Gnosticism shows a strong Jewish influence, particularly from Hekhalot literature. Ghazali characterized them as a group who are outwardly Shias but were actually adherence of a dualistic and philosophical religion. Gospel of Philip(Nag Hammadi Library) 5. Typologies, "a catalogue of shared characteristics that are used to classify a group of objects together. "The Phenomenon and Significance of Gnostic Sethianism" in The Rediscovery of Gnosticism. The text is not closely related to the canonical gospels and is not accepted as canonical by the Christian church. [94] Sethianism attributed its gnosis to Seth, third son of Adam and Eve and Norea, wife of Noah, who also plays a role in Mandeanism and Manicheanism. If their critics are reliable the basic conceptions of Gnostic cosmology are to be found in Cathar beliefs (most distinctly in their notion of a lesser, Satanic, creator god), though they did not apparently place any special relevance upon knowledge (gnosis) as an effective salvific force. Gnostic Association of Anthropological, Cultural and Scientific Studies; Gnostic church; Category:Gnostic deities; Gnostic Gospels; Gnostic Mass; Gnostic Society; Template:Gnosticism; Gnosticism in modern times; Category:Gnostics; God as Chad "Broseph" Huntington; Great Architect of the Universe; Pleroma (Greek πλήρωμα, "fullness") refers to the totality of God's powers. Complete list of codices found in Nag Hammadi, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Gnostic_texts&oldid=975171305, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 27 August 2020, at 04:03. Ptolemy's Epistle to Flora describes a general asceticism, based on the moral inclination of the individual. What the other Isrealite Camps and Babylon Christian Religions and the rest of the world dont want you to know. The Cathars (Cathari, Albigenses or Albigensians) were also accused by their enemies of the traits of Gnosticism; though whether or not the Cathari possessed direct historical influence from ancient Gnosticism is disputed. The Gnostic gospels can be a good source for the study of early Christian heresies, but they should be rejected outright as not belonging in the Bible and not representing the genuine Christian faith. The ascription by Justin Martyr, Irenaeus, and others of a connection between schools in their time and the individual in Acts 8 may be as legendary as the stories attached to him in various apocryphal books. According to Layton, this term was mainly applied by heresiologists to the myth described in the Apocryphon of John, and was used mainly by the Sethians and the Ophites. E.J. These writings had an antagonistic bias towards gnostic teachings, and were incomplete. Just like how the lotus flower would prefer death over drinking from the dirty swamp, the pure soul is unable to survive without the ginān from the True Guide. The title, "The Gospel of Thomas," is found at the end of the text. After its decline in the Mediterranean world, Gnosticism lived on in the periphery of the Byzantine Empire, and resurfaced in the western world. [79] Especially the Gospel of Thomas has a significant amount of parallel sayings. [80] According to Helmut Koester, this is because the Thomas-sayings are older, implying that in the earliest forms of Christianity Jesus was regarded as a wisdom-teacher. Jesus is identified with angel Christology in parable 5, when the author mentions a Son of God, as a virtuous man filled with a Holy "pre-existent spirit".[32]. The pseudepigraphical Christian text Ascension of Isaiah identifies Jesus with angel Christology: [The Lord Christ is commissioned by the Father] And I heard the voice of the Most High, the father of my LORD as he said to my LORD Christ who will be called Jesus, 'Go out and descend through all the heavens...[31], The Shepherd of Hermas is a Christian literary work considered as canonical scripture by some of the early Church fathers such as Irenaeus. The Quran, like Gnostic cosmology, makes a sharp distinction between this world and the afterlife. Johann Lorenz von Mosheim (1694–1755) proposed that Gnosticism developed on its own in Greece and Mesopotamia, spreading to the west and incorporating Jewish elements. [92] The Syrian–Egyptian school derives much of its outlook from Platonist influences. John the Evangelist is claimed as a Gnostic by some Gnostic interpreters,[93] as is even St. Dat was min of meer gelijktijdig met andere religieuze bewegingen waarin gnosis centraal stond, zoals het hermetisme, het mandeïsme en het derde-eeuwse manicheïsme. According to Petrement, Valentinus represented a moderation of the anti-Judaism of the earlier Hellenized teachers; the demiurge, widely regarded as a mythological depiction of the Old Testament God of the Hebrews (i.e. The author of the Testament of Solomon held Christ to be a particularly effective "thwarting" angel in the exorcism of demons. [note 17]. Other names or identifications are Ahriman, El, Satan, and Yahweh. This "true" angel Christology took many forms and may have appeared as early as the late First Century, if indeed this is the view opposed in the early chapters of the Epistle to the Hebrews. Jon Ma. Category:Gnostic Gospels. Syrian-Egyptian Gnosticism includes Sethianism, Valentinianism, Basilideans, Thomasine traditions, and Serpent Gnostics, as well as a number of other minor groups and writers. [176] The early church heresiologists created an interpretive definition of Gnosticism, and modern scholarship followed this example and created a categorical definition. The Nag Hammadi texts demonstrated the fluidity of early Christian scripture and early Christianity itself. Certain elements of the light became entrapped within darkness, and the purpose of material creation is to engage in the slow process of extraction of these individual elements. The site includes the Gnostic Library, with the complete Nag Hammadi Library and a large collection of other primary Gnostic scriptures and documents. ontwikkelden. This dualistic teaching embodied an elaborate cosmological myth that included the defeat of a primal man by the powers of darkness that devoured and imprisoned the particles of light. [3] Gnostics considered the principal element of salvation to be direct knowledge of the supreme divinity in the form of mystical or esoteric insight. [25], In 1966, at the Congress of Median, Buddhologist Edward Conze noted phenomenological commonalities between Mahayana Buddhism and Gnosticism,[39] in his paper Buddhism and Gnosis, following an early suggestion put forward by Isaac Jacob Schmidt. [104][35] Some of these groups existed into the Middle Ages. The Sethian hidden transcendent God is, by contrast, defined through negative theology: he is immovable, invisible, intangible, ineffable; commonly, "he" is seen as being hermaphroditic, a potent symbol for being, as it were, "all-containing". "[33], The Religionsgeschichtliche Schule ("history of religions school", 19th century) had a profound influence on the study of Gnosticism. Mandaeanism is still practiced in small numbers, in parts of southern Iraq and the Iranian province of Khuzestan, and there are thought to be between 60,000 and 70,000 Mandaeans worldwide.[129]. Similarly, the gnostic lives in the physical world, but is not of this world. According to Mosheim, Jewish thought took Gnostic elements and used them against Greek philosophy. [168], Hans Jonas (1903–1993) took an existential phenomenological approach to Gnosticism. [note 28] There is evidence for Manicheans in Rome and Dalmatia in the 4th century, and also in Gaul and Spain. [85] The fact that he claimed to have received his gospel directly by revelation from God appealed to the gnostics, who claimed gnosis from the risen Christ. [79] Yet, a striking difference is that the canonical sayings center on the coming endtime, while the Thomas-sayings center on a kingdom of heaven that is already here, and not a future event. The term demiurge derives from the Latinized form of the Greek term dēmiourgos, δημιουργός, literally "public or skilled worker". [note 18] God is the high source of the pleroma, the region of light. The Paulicians, an Adoptionist group which flourished between 650 and 872 in Armenia and the Eastern Themes of the Byzantine Empire, were accused by orthodox medieval sources of being Gnostic and quasi Manichaean Christian. Reconstructions were attempted from the records of the heresiologists, but these were necessarily coloured by the motivation behind the source accounts. The Gnostic Gospels: Are they the real history of Jesus? [33] Ugo Bianchi, who organised the Congress of Messina of 1966 on the origins of Gnosticism, also argued for Orphic and Platonic origins. [35] Both schools attempted "an effort towards conciliation, even affiliation" with late antique philosophy,[36] and were rebuffed by some Neoplatonists, including Plotinus. The Valentinians argued that such codes were intrinsic in gnosticism, secrecy being important to ensuring proper progression to true inner understanding. In the early years of the Arab conquest, Manicheanism again found followers in Persia (mostly amongst educated circles), but flourished most in Central Asia, to which it had spread through Iran. It is an inward "knowing", comparable to that encouraged by Plotinus (neoplatonism), and differs from proto-orthodox Christian views. Prior to the discovery of the Nag Hammadi library in 1945 Gnosticism was known primarily through the works of heresiologists, Church Fathers who opposed those movements. Radical dualism, or absolute dualism, posits two co-equal divine forces, while in mitigated dualism one of the two principles is in some way inferior to the other. The Gospel of Judas (second century CE) 4. Elaine Pagels, née Hiesey (born February 13, 1943), is an American religious historian.She is the Harrington Spear Paine Professor of Religion at Princeton University.Pagels has conducted extensive research into early Christianity and Gnosticism.. Proponents of the view that Paul was actually a gnostic, such as Elaine Pagels, view the reference in Colossians as a term that has to be interpreted in a gnostic sense. [81] The Apocryphon of John contains a scheme of three descendants from the heavenly realm, the third one being Jesus, just as in the Gospel of John. The lowest regions of the pleroma are closest to the darkness; that is, the physical world[52], Two of the most commonly paired æons were Christ and Sophia (Greek: "Wisdom"); the latter refers to Christ as her "consort" in A Valentinian Exposition. [37], In the 1880s, Gnosticism was placed within Greek philosophy, especially neo-Platonism. ", Markschies: "something was being called "gnosticism" that the ancient theologians had called 'gnosis' ... [A] concept of gnosis had been created by Messina that was almost unusable in a historical sense. Valentinus' students elaborated on his teachings and materials, and several varieties of their central myth are known. [47] The inferiority of the demiurge's creation may be compared to the technical inferiority of a work of art, painting, sculpture, etc. As we have seen, Epiphanius is one of the witnesses for the existence of a special sect called 'the gnostics', and yet Epiphanius himself seems to distinguish between these people and 'the Sethians' (Pan 40.7.5), whereas Layton treats them as both under the 'classic gnostic' category. J. Horn and Ernest Anton Lewald proposed Persian and Zoroastrian origins, while Jacques … The various emanations of God are called æons. [24] The cosmogonic speculations among Christian Gnostics had partial origins in Maaseh Bereshit and Maaseh Merkabah. Initially, they were hard to distinguish from each other. Some scholars continue to maintain traditional dating for the emergence of Gnostic philosophy and religious movements. Viewing material existence as flawed or evil, Gnostic cosmogony generally presents a distinction between a supreme, hidden God and a malevolent lesser divinity (sometimes associated with the Yahweh of the Old Testament)[2] who is responsible for creating the material universe. Those of the medieval Cathars, Bogomils, and Carpocratians seem to include elements of both categories. [105] One offshoot was in turn headed by Dositheus, Simon Magus, and Menander. [46] In other areas of morality, Gnostics were less rigorously ascetic, and took a more moderate approach to correct behaviour. [67] Still other traditions identify Mani and Seth, third son of Adam and Eve, as salvific figures. Twelve leather-bound papyrus codices buried in a sealed jar were found by a local farmer named Muhammed al-Samman. Persian Gnosticism possesses more dualist tendencies, reflecting a strong influence from the beliefs of the Persian Zurvanist Zoroastrians. [76] This theme was further developed by Elaine Pagels,[77] who argues that "the proto-orthodox church found itself in debates with gnostic Christians that helped them to stabilize their own beliefs. Jesus is identified by some Gnostics as an embodiment of the supreme being who became incarnate to bring gnōsis to the earth,[65][56] while others adamantly denied that the supreme being came in the flesh, claiming Jesus to be merely a human who attained enlightenment through gnosis and taught his disciples to do the same. [99] According to Temporini, Vogt, and Haase, early Sethians may be identical to or related to the Nazarenes (sect), the Ophites, or the sectarian group called heretics by Philo. [159] Though the original language of composition was probably Greek, the various codices contained in the collection were written in Coptic. [68] According to DeConick, the Gospel of John shows a "transitional system from early Christianity to gnostic beliefs in a God who transcends our world. These texts are mentioned or partially quoted in the writings of the Church Fathers. ", Traditional approaches, viewing Gnosticism as a Christian heresy, Phenomenological approaches, most notably. According to Tertullian, Valentinus was a candidate for bishop but started his own group when another was chosen. The influence of Manicheanism was attacked by imperial elects and polemical writings, but the religion remained prevalent until the 6th century, and still exerted influence in the emergence of the Paulicians, Bogomils and Cathari in the Middle Ages, until it was ultimately stamped out by the Catholic Church. Regarding the angel Christology of some early Christians, Darrell Hannah notes: [Some] early Christians understood the pre-incarnate Christ, ontologically, as an angel. According to Jonas, alienation is a distinguishing characteristics of Gnosticism, making it different from contemporary religions. "The Modern Relevance of Gnosticism" in The Nag Hammadi Library, 1990, sfn error: no target: CITEREFFrekeGandy2005 (, Learn how and when to remove this template message, On the Detection and Overthrow of Knowledge Falsely So Called, Hymn of Jude Thomas the Apostle in the Country of Indians, The Book of Thomas: The Contender Writing to the Perfect, "The Pair (Syzygy) in Valentinian Thought", "The Gnostic World View: A Brief Summary of Gnosticism", "Jesus′ Origin and Identity – Theodotus [of Byzantium]", "The Jesus Puzzle: Pieces in a Puzzle of Christian Origins", "Dualism Religion – Definition – Dualistic Cosmology – Christianity", Iraqi minority group needs U.S. attention, "Symphony of Gnosis: A Self-Definition of the Ismaili Ginan Literature", Lessons from the Kabbalah and Jewish history By Josef Blaha, Jewish mysticism: an introduction By J. H. Laenen, "Gnosis: The Nature and History of Gnosticism", Contact Made Vision: The Apocryphal Whitehead, "Fall 2014 Christianity Seminar Report on Gnosticism", "Gnosticism Theorized: Major Trends and Approaches to the Study of Gnosticism". Mani's father was a member of the Jewish-Christian sect of the Elcesaites, a subgroup of the Gnostic Ebionites. The Gospel of Thomas - provided in multiple translations, along with a vast collection of material about the Thomas tradition. And according to the Islamic belief in strict Oneness of God, there was no room for a lower deity; such as the demiurge. Jesus is interpreted as an intermediary aeon who was sent from the pleroma, with whose aid humanity can recover the lost knowledge of the divine origins of humanity. Gnosis is de kern in de religieuze overtuiging van een aantal religies die zich in de eerste eeuwen na Chr. In academic circles, three of the four canonical Gospels (Matthew, Mark, and Luke) are regarded as so similar in wording and content that they are often treated as one unit, the synoptic gospels. [23] Quispel sees Gnosticism as an independent Jewish development, tracing its origins to Alexandrian Jews, to which group Valentinus was also connected. This thesis is most notably put forward by Gershom Scholem (1897–1982) and Gilles Quispel (1916–2006). Nearly every group possesses one or more of them, or some modified version of them. Gospel of Judas (recovered via the antiquities black marketin 1983, and then reconstructed in 2006) [140] Like the gnostic conception of human beings imprisoned in matter, Sufi traditions acknowledge that the human soul is an accomplice of the material world and subject to bodily desires similar to the way archontic spheres envelop the pneuma. The Gospel of Judas is a Gnostic gospel.The content consists of conversations between Jesus and Judas Iscariot.Given that it includes late 2nd century theology, it is thought to have been composed in the 2nd century by Gnostic Christians, rather than the historic Judas himself. "[14][note 12], The origins of Gnosticism are obscure and still disputed. Complete ancient text and explanatory material. "public builder"),[54] who is also referred to as Yaldabaoth and variations thereof in some Gnostic texts. [153] Celia Green has written on Gnostic Christianity in relation to her own philosophy. Jump to navigation Jump to search. A 1st- or 2nd-century date of composition for the lost Greek originals has been proposed, though this is disputed; the manuscripts themselves date from the 3rd and 4th centuries. [citation needed], Some scholars prefer to speak of "gnosis" when referring to first-century ideas that later developed into Gnosticism, and to reserve the term "Gnosticism" for the synthesis of these ideas into a coherent movement in the second century. [71][92], The Persian Schools, which appeared in the western Persian province of Babylonia (in particular, within the Sassanid province of Asuristan), and whose writings were originally produced in the Aramaic dialects spoken in Babylonia at the time, are representative of what is believed to be among the oldest of the Gnostic thought forms. Brill 1978, sfn error: no target: CITEREFVerardi1997 (, Nicholas Goodrick-Clarke, Clare Goodrick-Clarke, sfn error: no target: CITEREFPerkins1987 (, sfn error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFDillon2016 (, sfn error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFBroek2013 (, Bentley Layton, The Gnostic Scriptures (SCM Press, London, 1987). 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Milieu that the idea emerged that the world, and Valentinians referred to Paul 's epistles Heinrich... All heresies, of which eight have been potential factors in Gnostic origins Christians shared some gnostic gospels wiki Leisegang!

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