As DeVilbiss Company robotics division marketing executive Timothy Bublick explains, “You develop a robot spray-gun attachment to paint for a specific customer and then it [the modification] becomes a product adaptation to the current state of the art.”. In the 1950s, Corning, a leading specialty glass materials company, developed a thermal shock-resistant glass-based material ideal for missile nose cones. See more. In brief, laboratory efforts are patterned after market objectives. High-technology companies often have research and development capabilities superior to those of competitors, yet achieve only mediocre commercial success or fail completely. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools.-April 17, 2009 Secretary of HHS to define "unsecured PHI" (September 2009) -August 17, 2009 FTC to 3. “Allied After Bendix: R&D is the Key,” Business Week, December 12, 1983, p. 79. The HITECH Act required the Secretary of the HHS to ensure guidance was issued annually to covered entities and business associates to help them implement appropriate technical safeguards to ensure the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of PHI. R&D involvement in marketing research appears to occur with increasing frequency, at least in market-driven high-tech companies. Marketers in high-tech businesses need to know what R&D is developing today and on the horizon, so they can realistically analyze and understand their planning constraints. HIPAA Advice, Email Never Shared In such instances, obviously, R&D remains involved. If a product is priced higher or lower than its per… HITECH allowed penalties to be issued for HIPAA violations that occurred without the knowledge of the covered entity or business associate if the covered entity/business associate should have been aware that HIPAA was violated by exercising reasonable due diligence. With such real or perceived obstacles, roughly half the executives we surveyed see R&D as having limited meaningful involvement in marketing planning. We interviewed high-ranking executives from key companies in such industries as robotics, computers, software, medical instruments, biotechnology, military systems, and ceramics. For the first three years, Micom followed the all-too-usual corporate path of not linking marketing and R&D, and according to Steve Frankel, vice president of marketing and development, R&D and marketing were competing. R&D or marketing prowess taken singularly, or even coexisting in the same organization, will not necessarily translate into financial success. Its short-term goals identify the need for products to diagnose infectious diseases and cancer. The final HITECH omnibus rule significantly tightens the HIPAA marketing restrictions. HITECH News The company-specific study focused on the high-tech business-to-business sales force of a single, but premier, comprehensive computer producer-marketer. Start studying HITECH & Breach Notification. It is important to note that, although HITECH mostly focuses on information technology, HHS can still take enforcement action against a Covered Entity or Business Associate when a breach unrelated to technology occurs. In terms of HIPAA compliance, the HITECH Act is important because it addresses loopholes in the original legislation and gives the Department of Health & Human Services (HHS) more powers to enforce HIPAA. I read on the cover of Success at Home Magazine that FHTM is an Entrepreneur's field of dreams. The high-tech marketers surveyed register strong dissent to the notion that the R&D people’s involvement with a new product ends when it is turned over to marketing; 85% encourage a continuing role for R&D. Some would say that opportunities like this are too good to be true and should be passed over. Price coversthe actual amount the end user is expected to pay for a product. In 1950, our company marketed a tape recorder. Such companies typically derive their initial strength from the innovations provided by the research and development function. With regard to pricing strategy too, the company has followed a premium pricing strategy which also reflects in its brand portfolio that contains 21 luxury and However, the story does not end there. These managers fail to reorient themselves so that they can compete effectively under the new conditions. Thus, their presence is also appropriate for the interface group. Top management must carefully orchestrate these first steps to ensure that the linkage has the appropriate priority. One way to improve understanding of high-tech markets is to divide them into either supply-side or demand-side markets. Often a company’s headquarters, by design or through acquisition, is located some distance from its high-tech unit or subsidiary. 4. Title II of HIPAA includes the administrative provisions, patient privacy protections, and security controls for health and medical records and other forms of protected health information (PHI). However, he had sold the company producing the product while it was still in the innovation-driven stage of market development, and thus he had never directed a company in a competitive environment. Business associates were made directly accountable for HIPAA violations and could be penalized financially for violating HIPAA Rules. Philip Maher, “CAD/CAM Vendors Plot a New Course,” Business Marketing, April 1983, p. 66. 3. A traditional consumer or industrial enterprise with one high-tech division or subsidiary. These variables are also known as the 4 P's of marketing or the product marketing mix. What is the Relationship Between HITECH, HIPAA, and Electronic Health and Medical Records? In the area of robotics, for instance, new steps often occur from customer suggestions. An official of Corning Glass Works provided us with a better illustration of a diverse cross-divisional application. In our judgment, businesses must meet three criteria to be labeled “high technology”: 1. Defense Systems offers defense-oriented electronics to the U.S. military. As new technologies come on stream, their applications create or revolutionize markets and demand. The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) was signed into law in August 1996, and was updated by the HIPAA Privacy Rule in 2003 and the HIPAA Security Rule in 2005, but how did the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH) Act change HIPAA and what is the relationship between HITECH, HIPAA, and electronic health and medical records? Our research finds that R&D’s actual involvement in formulating marketing strategies and tactics is best off limited to a technical-consultative role. As the first high-tech marketer, Thomas Edison, observed, “First, be sure a thing is wanted or needed, then go ahead.”. Our data note that marketing’s consulting is prevalent in the research and development phase, but, contrary to some views, not to the detriment of R&D. In addition to fines for business associates, HIPAA-covered entities could also be fined for violations of HIPAA Rules by their business associates. In development, the company focuses on product and market planning, from conception through actual introduction. The corporation is almost exclusively (Hazeltine) or partly (United Technologies) involved in high technology. Copyright © 2014-2021 HIPAA Journal. A widely publicized example is the friction at the newly deregulated American Telephone & Telegraph Company. Regulatory Changes In its 1982 annual report, German-based Nixdorf Computer stated candidly, “[Nixdorf] maintains two technology centers [Silicon Valley and Tokyo] which monitor…trends in fundamental research and user-oriented technology and assess their potential benefits for Nixdorf’s own R&D efforts.” Thus the company uses the marketplace and competitor developments to provide its window on technology. As the organizational complexity of a company increases, the possibilities for linking marketing and R&D in profitably innovative ways become more intriguing. Rather, they need to link R&D with marketing. Although sometimes considered poor substitutes for about or concerning, the phrases as regards, in regard to, and with regard to are standard and occur in all varieties of spoken and written English, especially in business writing: As regards your letter of January 19. In the semiconductor field, the industry’s ability to find ways to cram more transistors into a single chip may forestall advances in optics. The Boston Consulting Group (BCG) expects that figure to grow to 70% by 2020. The company’s top strategic and marketing objective is to achieve profitable commercial applications for laboratory output. The approach of Micom Systems, Inc. illustrates. All rights reserved. It is creating a channel for conversation with the targeted consumer base. The HITECH Act also strengthened the HIPAA Privacy and Security Rules with respect to electronic health and medical records. Copyright © 2020 Harvard Business School Publishing. Google has changed its strategy with regard to how much and over which media it invests in advertising. We directed the industry-specific inquiry to robotics (more than one-forth of the major U.S. manufacturers in this industry provided data). In the majority of the high-tech companies in our survey, the senior financial officer plays no central role in product development and planning, and only occasionally is corporate counsel represented. Despite the fact that it was a great achievement and a technological innovation for us, at the time it looked like a toy to the general public. Making the transition to customer marketing has been an extremely Just as marketing is heavily involved in R&D during precommercialization, R&D participates in marketing activities during the selling stage. Marketing and R&D people should talk almost daily during the initial market planning effort for a new product or application and regularly thereafter for updating and revision. But that entails rethinking professional development plans. 5. “Listening to the Voice of the Marketplace,” Business Week, February 21, 1983, p. 90. By improving the quality, safety, and efficiency of healthcare in a HIPAA-compliant manner, the Act aims to improve care coordination, reduce disparities in the ways healthcare is administered We witnessed this at the 13th ROBOTS 7 Exposition in Chicago in April 1983, where R&D people from many of the exhibitors held discussions with prospective buyers. For many established companies, becoming more effective marketers is a matter of fine tuning—increasing expenditures on promotion and advertising or reorganizing the sales force. For instance, semiconductor and computer concerns have formed the Microelectronics Computer Research Corporation in Austin, Texas, to derive technologies for use by the member companies and for licensing the technologies to nonmembers. What form might R&D involvement on the marketing side take? The interface needs of innovation-driven high-technology companies are different. 1. “Creativity in Modern Industry,” Omni, March 1981, p. 6. They had little marketing experience; indeed, they were contemptuous of marketing activities and refused to commit any funds to explore consumer sentiment, potential market demand, and possible advertising themes. Innovation-driven high technology offers a marked contrast, as R&D provides the stimulus and marketing officials must find applications or simply sell the product. Those notifications need to be issued without unnecessary delay and no later than 60 days following the discovery of a breach. The HITECH (Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health) Act of 2009 is legislation that was created to stimulate the adoption of electronic health records (EHR) and the supporting technology in the United States. In the opinion of Richard Reiser, the California-based advertising executive, “True marketing—marketing strategy and positioning, not sales alone—often only occurs when the advertising agency sits down to plan a campaign.”. A vehicle for cross-pollination of ideas and technologies among the various SBUs is vital, but may be difficult to implement. For example, Masahiko Kajitani, the general manager of video planning at Matsushita Electric Industrial Company, has said that companies should avoid overdelegating marketing and consumer studies to people uninvolved in product development. Five years ago, a robotics trade show could have been held in a closet. Several examples offer evidence of the ways revolutionary changes can occur in high technology. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Breach News To avoid later misunderstandings, both R&D and marketing should agree on and write the goals and objectives of the marketing plan. Certainly, few businesses would have bet that such diagnostic tests would lead to a major new medical market so soon. The possibilities for applications may be less obvious or so numerous that the company must establish priorities for exploitation. Marriott has maintained the image of a premium hospitality brand. One of the main aims of the HITECH Act was to encourage the adoption of electronic health and medical records by creating financial incentives for making the transition from paper to digital records. We also gathered extensive survey data on general marketing management issues from the chief marketing officers in 50 additional high-tech companies. Without getting too Aristotelian, with marketing, the whole is most certainly more than the sum of its parts - when it's done right that is. HIPAA Journal's goal is to assist HIPAA-covered entities achieve and maintain compliance with state and federal regulations governing the use, storage and disclosure of PHI and PII. We can differentiate further between market-driven and innovation-driven companies. I believe that it is. (For details on our research, see the insert.). Three-fourths of the executives we surveyed indicate that their new product ideas typically result from specific responses to market opportunities, rather than from R&D initiatives. Their managers place little stock in the mathematically based methods of marketing research that more mature companies use—methods requiring an abundance of data from a representative sampling for drawing statistical inferences. The remarks of Akio Morita, CEO of Sony Corporation, typify the marketing philosophy of a prototype supply-side thinker. Not surprisingly, the company has yet to earn a dollar of earnings and is on the verge of bankruptcy. The linkage in market-driven high technology comes primarily through R&D’s active participation in the market planning process, especially in the objective-setting stage. The possible applications of biotechnology are so numerous that the initial battle has been waged for basic patents.2 While forecasters talk of developments ranging from disease-free grains to microorganisms for gobbling up oil spills, the range may be so vast that some companies may delay or ignore entirely important commercial applications. Clearly, R&D’s efforts do not end once the selling begins. It has a solid background, is debt free, and has a compensation plan that has no equal. New technology can quickly make existing technology obsolete. Just as there are technically trained top executives who are also good marketers, there are marketing professionals with no technological training who successfully help guide high-tech companies. And primary data from traditional interviews of prospective buyers or users are of dubious value in answering questions about possible products or applications resulting from new technologies. As an advertising agency executive specializing in high-technology products notes, high-tech efforts of this genre rely on a “presumptive need” rather than identification of buyers’ desires. Discuss the various ways marketers might send messages to consumers on their mobile phones. These updates formed the basis for the HIPAA Breach Notification Rule which requires HIPAA covered entities to send notifications to affected individuals if there is a significant risk of financial, reputational or other harm as a result of a breach. We were not surprised, then, to see a company like McDonnell Douglas Automation Company (McAuto), whose main business is CAD/CAM time sharing, merge the formerly separate areas of marketing and R&D, enabling the company to establish a development-to-marketing line for technical products.4. For example, our data show that executives extensively use traditional research techniques, such as concept testing, product prototypes, and market tests. Product management is one of the best non-programming roles in the tech industry, and tech is one of the most attractive industries to work in. The resulting nonmilitary by-products often have little resemblance to the original applications. Mark Frantz, president of the rapidly growing Frantz Medical Development Ltd., comments, “Our business is built on the fact that so many companies do not involve their inventors in the final development of the product and the marketing side of the business.” Frantz’s company obtains promising medical patents and, with the inventor acting as product champion, produces and markets these innovations. The penalty structure for HIPAA violations was also amended by HITECH. Within each product-line organization, we have [an] individual marketing and development team… At Micom, marketing and development groups work together to define new directions and solutions to the needs of their specific product areas. In this seminal phase of market development, R&D is the prime mover behind marketing’s efforts. Cancel Any Time. In fact, one day’s leader, perhaps an Osborne Computer, can become the next day’s Chapter 11 or state-of-the-art victim. Intermediate goals focus on automated products to identify blood types, and its long-term goals pertain to products for treating infectious diseases and cancer. Marketing must deliver the necessary information to the buyer. In the first and second types of companies, the linkage problem is straightforward, but, in the third and fourth types, marketing and R&D appear at many places and levels in the organization. The definition of business associate was also expanded to include all persons who receive PHI and subcontractors of business associates. Essentials of Statistics for Business and Economics (Book Only) (7th Edition) Edit edition Problem 57SE from Chapter 2: Google has changed its strategy with regard to how much and ... Get solutions Some of the key updates to HIPAA by HITECH are detailed below: The HITECH Act required business associates of HIPAA covered entities to enter into a business associate agreement (BAA) with HIPAA-covered entities and agree not to disclose PHI other than for reasons permitted by the HIPAA Privacy Rule. G.D. Searle’s low-calorie sweetener, Aspartame, was discovered accidentally by a lab researcher who was involved with a quite different research project. Programming experience isn’t necessary, but it’s also a great next step for software engineers. Ostensibly, then, marketing and R&D managers have little reason to fail to communicate effectively with one another. Finally, consider the linkage needs of the multidivision major corporation with market-driven and innovation-driven interface demands and, perhaps, a portfolio of high-tech and low-tech strategic business units (SBUs). For strategic reasons, the company may have placed the high-tech group in a research environment (Silicon Valley, Route 128, or Research Triangle), or an attractive site (Aspen or Austin, for example), or at some distance from headquarters’ distractions. Mobile marketing is growing. Even so, we find that power plays or strained relations do frequently occur and that marketing-R&D linkage suffers in the process. Advertisements must clearly and prominently disclose whether the person giving the testimonial or endorsement (the “promoter”) is a client and whether the promoter is compensated. Through the give-and-take of setting objectives, R&D and marketing can agree on the target market, priorities, expectations, and timing. Carefully, we selected companies for their successful financial and market track records in high technology—companies of all sizes that have proved themselves in marketplace competition. They were also required to agree to adhere to certain provisions of the HIPAA Security Rule, including the implementation of administrative, physical, and technical controls to safeguard the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of PHI. A few high-technology companies, such as Apple Computer, have even looked to consumer-goods marketing professionals to provide marketing leadership. Innovation-driven companies’ reluctance to use quantitative approaches stems from the small amount of useful historical data. Steve holds a B.Sc. To build the team orientation needed, the two activities merged, as Frankel explains. The business requires a strong scientific-technical basis.2. Our studies have led us to identify four general types of high-technology companies, according to their degree of organizational complexity: 1. In the early 1970s, Defense Systems transferred integrated circuit technology to Aircraft. Allied’s technology broker will promote new marketing-R&D linkage opportunities by asking, in effect, “How about the commercial market opportunities of matching Division X’s technological know-how with the needs of Division Y’s marketing?”. In fact, some 85% of the executives in our research report using focus groups to qualify new products. Companies competing in the same industry forming a cooperative R&D venture. In 1958, he introduced versatile Corning Ware cookware that could go directly from the freezer to the oven or stovetop. In total, we examined over 125 companies. We believe that marketing and R&D linkage is achievable, regardless of company size and complexity. This is linked to what the perceived value of the product is to the customer rather than an objective costing of the product on offer. Formal marketing research, typical to consumer and industrial markets, is helping high-tech managers guide R&D. 2. Technology has embedded itself in the tourism industry. The HITECH Act has several goals. The high-tech development strategy group consists of the CEO or president, marketing, R&D, and production in roughly three-fourths of the companies we sampled. As briefly mentioned in the introduction, promotion is the communication aspect of the marketing mix. For high-technology companies, becoming effective marketers is often a matter of starting from scratch. Establishing realistic expectations early on mitigates cross fire later between R&D and marketing about “who is at fault” when a project fails to yield products that are readily marketable. That's the essential essence of integrated marketing - that by coordinating messages across channels the results from increasing brand awareness, familiarity, favourability and purchase intent are far higher than when taking a less integrated approach which fails to coordinate. After the R&D breakthrough is made, customer needs or wants are considered. Moreover, it gives solid direction to the marketing research people who seek the strongest commercial applications for a technological advance. In this market-driven kind of situation, R&D’s task is to respond to the specific market needs identified by marketing, R&D, top management, and others. He is a specialist on legal and regulatory affairs, and has several years of experience writing about HIPAA. In respect of the enhanced security and privacy provisions of HIPAA, the HITECH Act applies to Covered Entities, Business Associates, and software developers and/or vendors of personal health devices. While much can be learned from the mistakes of failed high-tech companies (which we looked at separately), we did not want to offer advice on marketing high technology that is based on the experiences of weaker competitors. By contrast, for innovation-driven high-technology companies, what customers need or want is residual. Turning a longtime technology-driven regulated monopoly into a market-driven competitor is a formidable chore. Messages can be targeted with a laser focus to very specific groups offering them relevant content. Managers of high-technology companies like to think of themselves as being market-driven. Tamar Lewin, “The Patent Race in Gene-Splicing,” New York Times, August 29, 1982. For example, companies of all types and sizes are currently giving attention to biotechnology. Fortunately, lack of sufficient interface in most companies usually results from more benign organizational factors like geographical separation and the difficulty of melding high-tech subsidiaries with a company’s traditional product offerings. Here marketing’s role is more traditional (i.e., more focused on advertising, pricing, distribution, and so on), much less entrepreneurial, and far more concerned with tight linkage between marketing and R&D. As mentioned previously, and more or less widely known within the heath care industry, the consensus view is that HIPAA has not been rigorously enforced in the past. This funding was based largely on the president’s previous development of an eminently successful high-tech industrial product. It also introduces accountability for Business Associates and vendors of personal health devices, who – in addition to HHS sanctions – can now be subject to civil and criminal penalties for data breaches. We also wanted to avoid the validity and reliability problems of studying in-depth only a small number of companies in a few industries or, alternatively, of studying a cross-section of many companies in too cursory a way. R&D’s reaction (dotted arrow) comes in the form of guidance on what is technically feasible and ideas from scientific circles. The business requires a strong scientific-technical basis. To get more specific information on three marketing areas, we conducted separate surveys and interviews. HIPAA Journal provides the most comprehensive coverage of HIPAA news anywhere online, in addition to independent advice about HIPAA compliance and the best practices to adopt to avoid data breaches, HIPAA violations and regulatory fines. Although company-specific recommendations are needed, possibilities might include both the establishment of a conventional corporatewide marketing-R&D committee or project team and a more experimental approach such as in-house trade shows for the company’s SBUs to demonstrate and publicize otherwise proprietary knowledge and offerings to one another. Market-driven high-technology companies assign R&D the task of producing innovations that meet specific market objectives. Once agreement is made, however,…the marketing activity proceeds with the classical marketing functions while the engineering team begins the engineering process. We believe that management should not view marketing and R&D as an either-or strategic proposition. It was able to withstand the heat and stress of going from ground zero to space and atmospheric re-entry, even at supersonic speeds. In both instances, the technology shared had positive effects on Aircraft’s market competitiveness. If followed exclusively, such a deliberate approach could result in delays in technological breakthroughs. Marketing and fundraising communications; and Individual rights to access electronic medical records and restrict the disclosure of certain information. It may be a fledgling venture or a market leader. This research procedure allowed us to achieve a balance among company-specific, industry-specific, and industrywide perspectives. “As the project proceeds, project status information is available to both groups, and in-house quality and functional testing, beta-test site testing, and product-user manual reviews are also joint activities. Discuss the opportunities and challenges facing marketers with regard to the use of mobile marketing. In the former, technological progress is literally creating markets and demand. Yet, once sophisticated marketing abilities became indispensable in the home computer market, companies dependent mostly on technological strengths were no match for IBM, Apple, and others. How a product is priced will directly affect how it sells. Already on the market, for example, in Pizza Time Theatres, are video games that use laser technology; the fruits of Singer Aerospace research are in its sewing machines and handheld power tools. The high-technology company that is not part of a larger corporation and is engaged basically in one industry (for example, Prab Robots). While this in itself was a major breakthrough, the late R. Lee Waterman, former CEO of Corning, saw a different and unique application for this material (trademarked PYROCERAM). Additionally, the top executive in the perceptive high-tech company stays involved in every major development decision. Early on, any market-share leader is in a precarious position. Another example of market specificity is Genetic Systems Corp.’s approach in writing lucid market goals guiding its R&D efforts over the short-, intermediate-, and long-term. Intense infighting for control between AT&T’s marketing people and its technically oriented Western Electric group has become so bitter that the company has already lost key members of its cadre of marketing executives. However, the HITECH Act prohibited the issuing of financial penalties if a violation was corrected within 30 days, provided the violation was not due to willful neglect. 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