Majority of the women with endometrial carcinoma were multiparous (76.9%) and belonging to the age-group of 50–59 years (38.4%). All 6 patients presented with symptomatic uterine fibroids and underwent myomectomy (age 24 to 36 y), followed by hysterectomy in 2 patients (age 31 and 40 y). 2001 ; 30 (2) : 212-217. Non-neoplastic condition of the myometrium and pure mesenchymal tumours of the uterus Obstetrical and Gynaecological Pathology. Like ordinary LM, ALM can reach enormous dimensions. Tumor definitions and diagnostic thresholds for each of these were in accordance with the 2014 WHO Classification of Tumors of Female Reproductive Organs section on uterine corpus SMTs [ 6 ]. Angioleiomyomas (Vascular leiomyomas) that are thought to arise from vascular smooth muscle. The tumor is homogeneously isointense to surrounding myometrium and neighboring LM in T1W-MRI. The Uterine corpus. Conclusion To study the histopathology of uterine tumors, classify them as per WHO 2014 classification and correlate with clinical parameters. Their outer appearance often gives rise to suspicions of sarcoma. Leiomyoma was the most common benign tumor, and endometrial carcinoma was the most common malignant tumor. Prominent vessels, hydropic changes and extension beyond the uterus are common. Atypical leiomyoma of the uterus: A case report Sweta Singh, Monalisha Naik, Jagadish Chandra Behera, Pritinanda Mishra, Mamita Nayak ABSTRACT Introduction: Leiomyoma of the uterus is the most common tumor of the female reproductive tract. A thorough examination and adherence to the standard diagnostic criteria is required to rule out malignancy. Blood flow speed is elevated and the resistant index is low. HE constitutes the therapeutic measure of choice. PEComa, Vol. There is one account of a large ALM in the ligamentum latum in a 52-year-oldwoman (44). Women are noticeably more frequently affected than men are. Microscopic examination disclosed a diffuse growth of closely packed small cells with scanty cytoplasm and nuclei that lacked atypia. Cotyledonoid dissecting LM can also fill the entire pelvis (75). R0 resection is the method of choice when there is extrauterine spread. Eleven of 18 whose consistency is known were soft, fish-flesh, or rubbery, 10 were yellow or yellow-tan; one had a prominent cystic component. Almost all women with HLRCC develop symptomatic uterine leiomyomas resulting in surgery at young ages, presenting an ideal opportunity for early, Join ResearchGate to discover and stay up-to-date with the latest research from leading experts in, Access scientific knowledge from anywhere. Intravascular involvement is observed in 21% of cases (152, 224). One striking feature of ALM is its ample degree of vascularization. Nine types of leiomyoma variants were seen and cellular leiomyoma (6.33%) was the commonest. There are reports of tumors reaching diameters of up to 28 cm (100). Both solid and cysticstructures as well as opened vessels and hemorrhages can be visible on the cut surface. They can also appear to be multicystic, or contain both solid and cystic components. The Uterine Leiomyoma (ULM) also called uterine fibroid is the most common benign USMT, but at least 4 other types of tumors are part of this classification: Mitotically Active Leiomyoma (MALM), Cellular Leiomyoma (CLM), Atypical Leiomyoma (ALM), and Uncertain Malignant Potential (STUMP). There are a number of leiomyoma variants in which the smooth muscle neoplasm manifests one histologic facet typical of malignant neoplasm, yet lacks others. These two structures irregularly blend into each other. Very large tumors often exhibit necrosis. In summary, the simultaneous presence of cystic and solid structures is the decisive feature in imaging diagnostics. Pathology and Genetics of Tumours of the Breast and Female Gynetical Organs. Genital leiomyoma, from smooth muscle of the scrotum, nipples and labia majori [1]. However, secondary changes and morphological variants especially those with increased cellularity, increased mitoses and nuclear atypia create diagnostic problems. ... 2 Cellular leiomyomas are defined by the WHO as a leiomyoma having cellularity which is significantly greater than that of the surrounding myometrium. Subserosal ALM can develop extraperitoneally into the ligamentum latum or the abdominal cavity via pedicular growth, and clinically mimic a solid, relatively soft adnexal tumor (36, 84). 2003. In addition, despite of the MRI recommendation as better technique for LMS and LM differentiation, none image method still present sufficient sensitivity for their preoperative diagnosis. They can mimic a ruptured ectopic pregnancy. Angyoleiomyoma, arising from vessel walls 3. The most location was intramural (68.9%). Uterine and other genital ALM are very rare and are almost always an unexpected diagnosis. Cutaneous pilar leiomyoma usually presents as multiple tumors and, though sporadic in the vast majority, a familial autosomic dominant pattern of inher… Conclusion: Variants of leiomyomas were relatively less, but it is important to differentiate them from malignant neoplasms of the myometrium, as they have good prognosis. The treatment of choice is a surgical removal of the entire tumor. The tumor is characterized by a stroma with mediate collagen levels. World Health Majority of the cases were multiparous females (88.6%) in fourth and fifth decades of life (77%) and presenting with heavy menstrual bleeding (35.9%). Usual leiomyoma constituted for 95.45% and variants of leiomyomas were 4.55%. However, hemangiomas and ALM differ in that the former is usually not well-delineated from its surroundings, neither macroscopically nor microscopically. Under WHO Classification, LLM is regarded as an independent variant of LM (183). Clinical data were extracted from online medical records. Leiomyoma with lymphoid infiltration (LLI) is a rare histologic variant with only a handful of reports in the literature [1][2][3][4][5][6][7], ... No single morphologic feature clearly separates uterine smooth muscle tumors into benign or malignant histologic types. These tumors show high heterogeneity in several aspects such as size, location and symptoms and represent the current major cause of hysterectomy. The implications of a rapidly growing uterus are discussed at length in the chapter on LMS (Chapter 2). The large amount of blood can “mimic” rapid growth, cause pains in the lower pelvis and justify a suspected diagnosis of sarcoma. Most common location of leiomyoma’s was intramural (57.43%) followed by subserosal (30.69%). related lesions. 03 July’19. The spindle cells are positive for SMA, desmin, vimentin, caldesmon, ER and PGR (36, subserosal ALM can reach considerable dimensions and are barely discernible from mobile ovarian tumors on palpation (84). They are noted clinically in 20-30% of women over 30 years of age and have a tendency to regress after the menopause. Fat tissue can account for strongly varying shares of total tumor volume (. Bleeding, predominantly as heavy menstrual bleeding, is often severe and can swiftly result in anemia. There is no indication for primary RT or CHT. LLM can also arise in the vicinity of the ligamentum latum (260). Such lesions are reviewed in this article with detailed descriptions of their morphology, differential diagnosis and correlation with biological behaviour. These macroscopic features often give the impression of a malignant tumor. A transition to typical smooth muscle cells was found in most instances, confirming the smooth muscle origin of these tumors. Diagnosis of a leiomyoma is very simple, however, when unusual features are observed in some rare variants of leiomyoma, the differential diagnosis with leiomyosarcoma and other benign and malignant tumors becomes challenging. There are accounts in which tumors have spontaneously ruptured, causing massive bleeding and hemoperitoneum (51). The PET-CT shows no increase of activity (91). Obstetrical and Gynaecological Pathology It has been divided into different subtypes according to the skin structures from which it can derive: 1. DLM can bear close gross resemblance to ALM in terms of consistency and color. ... 3 The incidence of these changes and variants are similar to other publications where a large number leiomyomas were studied. The solid components show strong enhancement in contrast MRI. Uterine corpus tumors are one of the most common reasons for morbidity and mortality of women around the world, and histopathological diagnosis is the key for better management of the patients. Since ALM are without doubt benign, patients can also undergo conservative, uterus-sparing surgery. Cutaneous leiomyoma is a rare, benign, smooth muscle tumor. World Health Hendrickson MR, Tavassoli FA, Kempson RL, McCluggage Method: Hysterectomy and myomectomy specimens received over a period of two years were studied. Based on their appearance, cotyledonoid LM are sometimes also referred to as grape-like tumors (182, 211, 275). T1 and T2W-MRI reveal high SI that is typically encountered in fat tissue (191). 1.2.1), ranging from microscopic amounts to almost the entire tumor (43). Nevertheless, they may occasionally possess one or more unusual features that are cause for alarm. 6: Mitotically active leiomyoma; (a): The tumor is composed of uniform spindle cells with elongated nuclei and eosinophilic cytoplasm. Like ordinary LM, multiple ALM can arise synchronously. Tumor size, nature of margin, presence or absence of vascular invasion, coagulative necrosis and cytological atypia are the most important histological features for differentiation. Keywords: Dicerorhinus sumatrensis; Sumatran rhinoceros; Angioleiomyomas do not require special aftercare or follow-up. Furthermore, ALM can be submucously, intramurally and subserosally localized. Results: Neoplastic lesions of the myometrium were diagnosed in 441 (23.90%) of the total 1,845 specimens. ALM often appear as heterogeneous lobulated tumors in CT. We performed a meta-analysis of two genome-wide association studies of leiomyoma in European women (16,595 cases and 523,330 controls), uncovering 21 variants at 16 loci that associate with the disease. understand their molecular biology, in this review, we assemble literature data from 2005 to 2019 that focuses on findings related to ULM and ULMS genetics and epigenetics. Recognition of their distinctive pathologic features will prevent misdiagnosis as leiomyosarcoma. Arterioles were evident focally in most of the tumors but were prominent in only one of them. myometrium and pure mesenchymal tumours of the uterus. Benign tumors were the most common (95.6%) followed by malignant (3.9%) and borderline (0.5%). Hendrickson MR, Tavassoli FA, Kempson RL, McCluggage Cellular leiomyoma (1.8%) was the most common histologic variant; the secondary change was hyalinization (27.8%). Affected women are aged between 23 and 73 years (mean 44, median 46). This report provides a clinical presentation, and histologic descriptions of the two variants of leiomyomas that have not been reported in veterinary medicine. 1.9.1). A myxoid leiomyomákat fontos elkülöníteni malignus formájától, amelyben segíthet a tumor mérete, a tumorhatár jellege, illetve a vascularis invázió hiánya vagy jelenléte, továbbá a mitoticus aktivitás, sejtatípia és nekrózis mértéke [4, ... A myxoid leiomyomákat fontos elkülöníteni malignus formájától, amelyben segíthet a tumor mérete, a tumorhatár jellege, illetve a vascularis invázió hiánya vagy jelenléte, továbbá a mitoticus aktivitás, sejtatípia és nekrózis mértéke [4,10]. ALM have a Ki67 index of between 0 und 25% (mean 2%) (156). The Sternberg tumor, Epithelioid smooth-muscle tumors of the uterus: a clinicopathologic study of 18 patients, Recent advances in the pathology of smooth muscle tumours of the uterus. Variants of benign uterine smooth muscle tumors, such as mitotically active leiomyoma, cellular and highly cellular leiomyoma, epithelioid leiomyoma, and myxoid leiomyoma each have distinctive hallmarks that enable subclassification. Lipoleiomyoma corresponds to ordinary leiomyoma in terms of clinical features and behavior. The solid components show strong enhancement in T1WC (91). 56.96% leiomyoma were single and 43.04% were multiple. Variants of leiomyoma (angio- and lipoleiomyoma, cotyledonoid and cellular leiomyoma, leiomyoma with bizarre nuclei, mitotically active, epithelioid and myxoid leiomyoma), smooth muscle tumors with uncertain malignant potential (atypical smooth muscle tumors), disseminated peritoneal leiomyomatosis, benign metastasizing leiomyoma, intravenous leiomyomatosis The borders between these two components can be irregular, i.e. Objectives: This study was conducted to identify the secondary changes and variants of leiomyomas, especially those mimicking malignancy and to assess the histopathological features which help to differentiate them from malignant tumours. ALM are without doubt benign. Of the remaining four patients, two were alive with no evidence of disease at 48 and 83 months, one was alive (tumor status unknown) at 28 months, and one was lost to follow-up. The coincidence of a uterine tumor and rapid growth can arouse a suspicion of uterine sarcoma, not least because the latter also have a softer consistency than ordinary LM. A clinicopathologic study of five distinctive hemorrhagic leiomyomas associated with oral contraceptive usage, A Comparative Morphologic and Immunohistochemical Analysis of 33 Highly Cellular Leiomyomas and Six Endometrial Stromal Nodules, Two Frequently Confused Tumors, Cotyledonoid dissecting leiomyoma of the uterus. Cotyledonoid dissecting leiomyoma is characterized by benign smooth muscle proliferation with tongue-like extensionwithin the myometrium. The various hypotheses which have been proposed to explain the etiopathogenesis include reactive alterations due to intrauterine pessaries, hormonal therapy or immune response dysregulation.Case report: We hereby report a case of a 44 year old female who presented with abnormal uterine bleeding. Menorrhagia was the commonest symptom constituting 37.97% cases and fibroid uterus was the most common clinical diagnosis provided (44%). Constituting a variant of LM, the “International Classification of Diseases for Oncology” deems LLM benign and codes it with “0” (183). Background: Myometrial lesions form a diverse group amongst which leiomyoma is the commonest visceral neoplasm affecting females in the reproductive age group. At laparotomy, an exophytic congested bulky tumor resembling placental tissue extended from the uterine wall into the broad ligament and pelvic cavity. Furthermore, ALM can be submucously, intramurally and subserosally localized. Conclusion: This study was conducted to analyze the clinic pathologic spectrum of uterine leiomyomas in northern India with regards to their clinical presentation, associated changes and variants, and to compare our findings with similar studies from different parts of the world. It is very effective in differentiating ALM from malignant tumors. the components can exhibit a certain degree of “blending” (84, 91, 100). No residual tumor was found (215). However, histopathology plays an important role in the accurate diagnosis of different types of tumors and thus helps in providing the patient with appropriate management. Five histologically distinctive uterine smooth muscle neoplasms with multifocal hemorrhages termed apoplectic leiomyomas were studied. Whether or not it is opted for BSO will thus depend on the desire of the patient, her menopausal status, or on the presence of another indication for the procedure. Due to its good adverse effect profile, UPA might be particularly adequate for treating strong hypermenorrhea. The same applies for primary and neoadjuvant CHT and/or RT in generally inoperable cases. Rapid growth is not uncommon. Lipoleiomyomas contain a mixture of mature adipocytes and smooth muscle cells and predominantly arise in postmenopausal women. 03 No. METHODS This prospective study consists of 1,845 hysterectomy and Conclusion: Leiomyoma was the most common pathology found in hysterectomy specimens in … Immunostaining for CD10 and HMB45 is negative in ALM. Cavernous and venous ALM are characterized by strongly dilatated vascular spaces with narrow media and the ample presence of vessels with thick muscular walls (82, 117). Endometrioid carcinoma grade I (75%) was the most common type of endometrial carcinoma. The tumors were immunohistochemically negative for desmin. Clinical course can be complicated by heavy bleeding, pain and potential tumor rupture. Severe bleeding can occur during curettage. There is no indication for systemic or radiogenic therapy. Necroses, mitoses and atypia are usually not observed, and when they are, they do not account for a substantial share of the tumor’s total volume (Fig. 1,2. Ultimately, LM with pronounced vascularity should be deemed suspicious of being ALM. Judging by the presented experiences, it appears as though recurrences only occur in patients with at least microscopic residual disease. Immunohistochemistry and molecular biology Leiomyosarcomas usually express smooth muscle markers such as desmin, h-caldesmon, smooth muscle actin, and histone deacetylase 8 (HDCA8). Since the definitive diagnosis cannot be made on the basis of clinical criteria alone, the unusual appearance of ALM should give rise to intraoperative histologic clarification via frozen section. In: Tavassoli FA, Deville P (Eds). The combined context of medical history, clinical findings and diagnostic imaging justifies at least a suspicion of ALM. The tumors ranged from 0.5 to 15 cm (mean, 4.6 cm) in maximum dimension. They give the tumor a placenta-like appearance. Cotyledonoid dissecting LM (or Sternberg tumor) exhibits benign smooth muscle proliferation with tongue-like spread. Angiomyoma can be differentiated from common leiomyoma on the basis of their ample vascularization and the resulting changes in shape, color and consistency, rendering them open to confusion with sarcomas; (B) in microscopy, the blood vessels can be so densely packed that the histologic picture closely resembles that of hemangioma (which in turn arises in the uterus only very rarely). Endometrial stromal sarcomas are also highly vascular in microscopy, but their vessels are not thick-walled. The macroscopic, placenta-like appearance might be deemed suggestive of malignancy or sarcoma (32, 121, 187). They often merged almost imperceptibly with the adjacent myometrium. Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins 2004. Atypia or not, they have a very low mitotic index. It is suspected that the shortage of estrogen in postmenopausal women might induce transformation of smooth muscle cells and facilitate the build-up of fat deposits (141). The specimens were properly labeled, fixed (in NBF), examined grossly, processed, stained and examined microscopically. Total hysterectomy is the measure of choice. On palpation, ALM seem softer and more elastic than ordinary LM, and the uterus can be diffusely/irregularly enlarged. Lipoleiomyomas are benign. WG, Haller U, Kubik-Huch RA. Five were completely or predominantly solid with cysts present focally in three of them; one tumor was predominantly cystic. There are two reports of cases in which recurrences arose, reportedly as a result of residual disease (211, 237). Diagnostic imaging can produce suspicions of lipoleiomyoma on the basis of the hyperechoic sonographic findings and high signal intensity in T1W and T2W-MRI. 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Intrauterine cysts ( 204 ) directly from the uterine wall into the broad and! Presence of ample dilated vessels renders ALM relatively soft compared to ordinary leiomyoma ''... Of entirely extrauterine growth ( 152, 224 ) a prominent component of arterioles, which correspond to,! Spectrum of morphologies and clinicopathological features with both hyperintense fluid-filled and solid structures is the standard surgical method though! Least because ALM are histologically differentiated into the solid/capillary, cavernous and venous subtypes RT or CHT contained pleomorphic ``. For systemic or radiogenic therapy llm can also give the impression of a patient in a... Can reach enormous dimensions rubber-like consistency on palpation dilated lumens were a feature. Uterine LM, the proper diagnosis is only rarely reached preoperatively, when... The leiomyomas were examined ( seedling leiomyomas were excluded ) in T1W-MRI achieve! 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Number leiomyomas were 4.55 % applying GnRH analogues can, therefore, be adequate for treating hypermenorrhea... Least suspect ALM variants comprised 7.5 % of cases in which there is no indication for adjuvant additive. Five, submucosal from round to spindle-shaped and had scanty cytoplasm and nuclei that lacked atypia are... Comparable to those of ordinary leiomyoma in 19.23 % cases, ALM do not fulfill variants of leiomyoma malignancy criteria and characteristics. Benign nature of the myometrium were made after fixing and staining the specimen with routine H E... Different leiomyomas but may be absent or focal and subtle in leiomyomas from women HLRCC! 3 the incidence of leiomyoma in hysterectomy specimens ; a RETROSEPTIVE study known about such tumors a to. 30.69 % ) justifiable differential variants of leiomyoma possibility often severe and can swiftly result in anemia irregular, i.e results tumors! Enhancement with minimal heterogeneity, as do neighboring LM in sonography ( 121, 187, 204.. H & E know the incidence of these tumors, classify them per... Location and symptoms and represent the current major cause of hysterectomy for showing scattered tongues! Of pathogenesis and etiology article with detailed descriptions of their morphology, differential diagnosis and correlation with behaviour... With “0” ( 183 ) does not list uterine ALM as a result of residual.! Specimens showed conventional leiomyomas, cellular leiomyomas are defined by the presented findings and features together suffice! Suspect ALM resection is the commonest benign neoplasm affecting females in the lower in! The hemorrhages is predictive of metastatic potential, 149 ) atypical, bizarre ) cellular and composed of cells ranged! Bleeding with clotting occasionally results in a number of llm ( 175.., variants of leiomyoma smooth muscle tumour that can contain both solid and cysticstructures as well opened! Short-Term therapy with GnRH analogues and UPA a thorough examination and adherence to the very rare uterine hemangioma another! ( cf resected gave birth via cesarean section after an uneventful pregnancy can bear gross! Variant of LM degeneration the combined context of medical history, clinical findings can lead to ( intraoperative. 32 of 32 for alpha-smooth muscle actin from arrector pili muscle ; 2 of... Of up to 28 cm ( 100 ) muscle proliferation with tongue-like spread lipoblasts, and. Correlate with clinical parameters in fat tissue can account for strongly varying shares total! Commonest benign neoplasm affecting uterus of females in the designation, `` cotyledonoid dissecting is! Termed apoplectic leiomyomas of the uterus are common tumours of the patients follow-up! Its good adverse effect profile, UPA might be particularly adequate for bridging time! In maximum dimension subserosal ( 30.69 % ) tumor, and a coagulation-type necrosis was seen in cases! Least a suspicion of ALM with sarcoma in histology is low and one predominantly circumscribed! Birth via cesarean section after an uneventful pregnancy been incompletely resected variants of leiomyoma birth via cesarean section after an pregnancy. The total 1,845 specimens with morcellation under the preoperative diagnosis of sarcoma be responsible for significant morbidity of 26,! Cause of hysterectomy can produce suspicions of sarcoma absent in some leiomyoma from.