Linen is also mentioned in the Bible in Proverbs 31, a passage describing a noble wife. After the fibers have been separated and processed, they are typically spun into yarns and woven or knit into linen textiles. It is also found in wall coverings, drapery, and upholstery fabric. Flax is a natural plant fiber. The Lower Rhine was a center of linen making in the Middle Ages. A characteristic often associated with linen yarn is the presence of slubs, or small, soft, irregular lumps, which occur randomly along its length. Approximately 70% of linen production in the 1990s was for apparel textiles, whereas in the 1970s only about 5% was used for fashion fabrics. © 2021 - Textile School. Because of these properties, linen is comfortable to wear in hot weather and is valued for use in garments. However, in the case of many present-day linen fabrics, particularly in the decorative furnishing industry, slubs are considered as part of the aesthetic appeal of an expensive natural product. They are a family of fibers that allow for the entire plant to be used. The floured couche makes a "non stick" surface to hold the dough. Linen is a natural plant fiber taken from the stem of the flax plant. Classifications & Analysis of Textiles: A Handbook by Karen L. LaBat, Ph.D. and Carol J. Salusso, Ph.A. Linen fabric has been used for table coverings, bed coverings and clothing for centuries. Bast fiber, which is obtained from the stems of various plants, can also be harvested from plants such as hemp, ramie and jute. The fibres support the conductive cells of the phloem and provide strength to the stem. [citation needed] Egyptian mummies were wrapped in linen as a symbol of light and purity, and as a display of wealth. Several grades were produced including coarse lockram. For example, a linen cap worn by Emperor Charles V was carefully preserved after his death in 1558.[25]. "[For context], with the exception of linen, bast fibers are typically used for rugs, ropes, and other applications where strength and durability are key." The stem consists essentially of a central woody core and a surrounding cortex which contains the flax or bast fibers. "Bast fibers are typically coarse natural fibers, meaning they aren't going to be super soft initially," says Sarah Wang, the head of research and development with Tricol-Everplush. Today, linen is usually an expensive textile produced in relatively small quantities. FLAX is used to produce linen. Flax. In order to restore cellulose fibers from the plant, the wooden trunk and the inner pith (pectin), which binds the fibers together in a clump, must be eliminated away. June 3, 2016 - 7:58 am . Today, flax is a prestige fiber as a result of its limited production and relatively high cost. [citation needed] In the Ulster Museum, Belfast there is the mummy of 'Takabuti' the daughter of a priest of Amun, who died 2,500 years ago. The word linen comes from the Latin word for flax, linum. All Rights Reserved. In China, the English Cotton system unit, NeC, is common. Everything You Need to Know About Using and Caring for Linen", "How quickly do fashion materials biodegrade? “Review of bast fiber retting,” BioResources 6(4), 5260-5281. It is strong yet comfortable to wear in warm weather. Such fibres, usually characterized by fineness and flexibility, are also known as “soft” fibres, distinguishing them from the coarser, less flexible fibres of the leaf, or “hard,” fibre group. It’s also used in handkerchiefs, and fine fashions – everything from dresses to suits. Thus linen is considerably more expensive to manufacture than cotton. Linen is a bast fiber. Linen is bast fiber. Flax is grown in many parts of the world, but top quality flax is primarily grown in Western European countries and Ukraine. Dyed flax fibers found in a cave in Southeastern Europe (present-day Georgia) suggest the use of woven linen fabrics from wild flax may date back over 30,000 years. (2011). [citation needed] For example, the Tarkhan dress, considered to be among the oldest woven garments in the world and dated to between 3482 and 3102 BC, is made of linen. In recent years bulk linen production has moved to Eastern Europe and China, but high-quality fabrics are still confined to niche producers in Ireland, Italy and Belgium, and also in countries including Poland, Austria, France, Germany, Sweden, Denmark, Belarus, Lithuania, Latvia, the Netherlands, Spain, Switzerland, Britain and Kochi in India. Because of its strength when wet, Irish linen is a very popular wrap of pool/billiard cues, due to its absorption of sweat from hands. Linen should not be dried too much by tumble drying, and it is much easier to iron when damp. Linen is another bast fiber made from the stalk of flax plants. Your email address will not be published. Flax fibers vary in length from about 25 to 150 mm (1 to 6 in) and average 12–16 micrometers in diameter. In Europe, however, linen is usually the only fabric support available in art shops; in the UK both are freely available with cotton being cheaper. Specimens of linen garments worn by historical figures have survived. Linen is a bast fiber. Consequently the quality parameters for these fibers are developed before the harvest of the fruits. Bast Fibers. Linen is a flax-based textile that is predominantly used for homeware applications. The term “linen” is often misused, being applied to fabrics that simply look like linen, or being used as a general term for sheets, towels, and tablecloths. Bast fibre, soft, woody fibre obtained from stems of dicotyledonous plants (flowering plants with net-veined leaves) and used for textiles and cordage. At one time it was the country's greatest export item and Russia produced about 80% of the world's fiber flax crop. Bast fibre (also called phloem fibre or skin fibre) is plant fibre collected from the phloem (the "inner bark", sometimes called "skin") or bast surrounding the stem of certain dicotyledonous plants.It supports the conductive cells of the phloem and provides strength to the stem. This is the number of 840 yard lengths in a pound. Hemp takes dye beautifully. Susana K. September 30, 2011 - 12:09 pm . Ramie is another common bast fiber. Linen is very strong and absorbent and dries faster than cotton. Flax is planted in spring. Excellent strength gains strength when wet, Hydrophilic: absorbs water and dries quickly, Withstands very high temperatures when washing and ironing, Unique texture from the thick-and-thin pattern of the fibers, Interiors: tablecloths, napkins, wallpaper, Linen has been used for clothing for at least ten thousand years, Similar to cotton in its properties (both are natural, cellulosic fibers), Linen fibers have a silky luster and a cool feel, Fibers are in the stem of a plant (therefore called a “bast” fiber), Long fibers from 6 to 20 inches make linen even smoother than cotton, Conducts heat away from the body better than cotton, Linen is a bast fiber from the flax plant, The fibers are harvested primarily by hand. The linen fiber is not to be confused with bed linen, although the two are connected. Bast fibers are the fibrous part of the plant just below the bark. The term "linens" refers to lightweight undergarments such as shirts, chemises, waist-shirts, lingerie (a cognate with linen), and detachable shirt collars and cuffs, all of which were historically made almost exclusively out of linen. University of Minnesota, 2003, "Profiles of 15 of the world's major plant and animal fibres", "Linen Most Useful: Perspectives on Structure, Chemistry, and Enzymes for Retting Flax", Flax and Linen Textiles in the Mycenaean palatial economy, "Flax to Fabric: The Story of Irish Linen", "The Development of Textile Technology: Inside the TextilTechnikum (Textile Technology Center) in Monforts Quartier, Mönchengladbach", "Background history of Linen from the flax in the field to finished linen cloth", "What Is Linen? [15][16] Linen was sometimes used as a form of currency in ancient Egypt. Flax fibers are obtained from the stem of the flax plant. Nevertheless, the tendency to wrinkle is often considered part of linen's particular "charm", and many modern linen garments are designed to be air-dried on a good clothes hanger and worn without the necessity of ironing. These fibers are annually renewable crops that come off of the stalks rather than the leaves and grow in 90 to 100 days. Bast fibers come from the stems of plants such as flax, ramie, hemp and jute. For example, a yarn having a size of 1 lea will give 300 yards per pound. 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